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The Beginner's Guide to Solar Panels

There are three types of solar panels: single crystal solar panel, multi-crystalline or poly-crystalline solar panel, and amorphous silicon solar panel.

Three types of solar panels:
Solar Panels

Single crystal solar panels are currently the most efficient type available, meaning that they produce the most power per square foot of module. The cells are fragile so they must be mounted in a rigid frame, and the solar panels usually have a polka dot or checkered pattern.

Multi-crystalline (or poly-crystalline) solar panels are made of cells cut from multiple crystals that are grown together in an ingot. They are similar to single crystal cells in module structure. But multi-crystalline (or poly-crystalline) solar panels are slightly less efficient since they require a bit more surface area to produce the same amount of electricity.

Chinese solar market witnesses $ 2.5 billion deal and share sale

Wholly owned subsidiary Fujian Apollo will produce and deliver the solar production equipment in three phases each valued at $850 million to Hanergy Holding Group Limited, a private power generation company based in Beijing.

Each batch will contain 140 units of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and 30 units of physical vapor deposition equipment, key machinery in solar PV modules production.

Apollo Solar Energy supplies equipment for solar modules in China.
Apollo Solar Energy

Coming next to the deal is Hanergy's planned subscription to a total of 4.911 billion in shares in Apollo Solar at 0.239 Hong Kong dollars per share.

Hanergy will become a major shareholder following the shares subscription and will appoint three directors to Apollo Solar’s board. Apollo Solar (HKG:0566) is currently trading at 0.77 Hong Kong dollars at the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.
 

Problems of rural hydropower in China (part 2)

4) With the steady advancement of power sector reform, separation between transmission and distribution have been finished. But the monopoly of electricity grid still needs decentralizing.
rural hydroelectric in China

Some hydropower (hydroelectric) stations can generate electricity, but are not allowed to do so. Some hydro-power (hydroelectric) stations are allowed to generating, but are not accepted by the national grid. These phenomena still exist in some areas. The resource waste still exists.

5) Although the State Council had issued the new power price policy for hydropower (hydroelectric), the exact new power price mechanism still needs time to be established. 

Problems of rural hydropower in China (part 1)

These problems of rural hydropower (hydroelectric) in China are:

1) Unorderly development of rural hydro power is very severe.

Many hydropower stations in China do not accord with the comprehensive planning of river basin and hydroelectric potential development.

Some river basins are even trenched on viciously preventing from equal competition. Some multi-purposed projects, with the benefits of irrigation, flood control and ecological benefits, have been explored as a pure commercial power generation projects; some developers reduce the installed capacity of stations defying the hydro-power potential planning, but according to their own financial resources; and some developers at will choose the site. They don't obey the rolling planning of rural hydropower, therefore, resulting in a great deal of resources waste and even affecting the safety of flood control, irrigation, drinking and ecological water supply.
Rural hydropower in China:
rural hydropower in China


2) Severe hidden safety trouble exists in structure of some projects which have not passed the appraisal and approval of water resource authorities.

Green Building in China

Of course it is difficult to assess accurately the total volume of energy consumed in buildings in China. But the data above give us the bad impression at least. Many existing buildings in China have a serious problem of resource and energy waste in the process of construction and use. It's estimated that the energy consumption of unit area in China reaches as many as 2 or 3 times of that in the developed countries with the similar climate environment.

Energy waste in the process of construction and use in building in China is vast. China needs to improve energy efficiency in buildings, ruduce emission, conservate construct resource.
Green Building in China

The National Development and Reform Committee (NDRC), Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development (MHRUD), Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), and relevant government bodies, had published several standards to regulate and lead the healthy & rapid development of green buildings. But at this time successful examples of green public buildings in China are still rare because local developers and companies in China are lagging behind. There are many reasons. I may write more articles about green buildings in China later.

The small-scale & rural hydropower of China

It's definite that the resources of moderate scale rural hydro-power (hydroelectric) of China are abundant. And according to the preliminary statistics of recent check survey, the capacity of hydropower in China that can be explored amounts to 130 GW, highest over any other country and area in the world.
small-scale & rural hydropower:
 

rural hydropower

The hydro-power resources in rural areas of China are distributed widely in more than 1600 counties of 30 provinces, which mainly are scattered in western, middle part and littorals of China. Western areas, poor areas, minority areas contain over 70% of total small or moderate scale rural hydro-power (hydroelectric) resources.

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